eBACS: ECRYPT Benchmarking of Cryptographic Systems

General information: Introduction eBASH eBASC eBAEAD eBATS SUPERCOP XBX Computers
How to submit new software: Tips hash stream aead dh kem encrypt sign
List of primitives measured: lwc sha3 hash stream lwc caesar aead dh kem encrypt sign
Measurements indexed by machine: lwc sha3 hash stream lwc caesar aead dh kem encrypt sign
List of subroutines: verify decode encode sort core hashblocks scalarmult


Users of cryptography have a choice of public-key signature systems, including RSA, DSA, ECDSA, and many more. Exactly how fast are these systems? How do the speeds vary among Cortex-A8, Sandy Bridge, Haswell, etc.? How much network bandwidth do the systems consume? The same questions arise for many other cryptographic operations, such as public-key encryption, Diffie–Hellman public-key secret sharing, secret-key encryption, and hash functions.

eBACS (ECRYPT Benchmarking of Cryptographic Systems) aims to answer these questions. eBACS unifies and integrates

The eBACS/eBATS/eBASC/eBASH/eBAEAD mailing list is named after eBATS, the first of these projects. To join the mailing list, send an empty message to ebats-subscribe at

If you use eBACS information in a paper then you should cite the web pages as follows:

Daniel J. Bernstein and Tanja Lange (editors). eBACS: ECRYPT Benchmarking of Cryptographic Systems., accessed 7 March 2025.
Replace 7 March 2025 by your download date.

History and acknowledgments

ECRYPT was a Network of Excellence funded by the European Commission's Sixth Framework Programme (FP6), contract number IST-2002-507932. ECRYPT's Symmetric Techniques Virtual Lab (STVL) distributed a new benchmarking suite as part of eSTREAM, a multi-year project that identified several promising new stream ciphers. The benchmarking suite was written by Christophe De Cannière. The benchmarking suite was made public, allowing third parties to collect and verify performance data for more than thirty stream ciphers submitted to eSTREAM.

STVL's successful benchmarking efforts inspired ECRYPT's Virtual Application and Implementation Research Lab (VAMPIRE) to initiate eBATS, a competition for the fastest public-key software. VAMPIRE developed a new benchmarking suite, BATMAN (Benchmarking of Asymmetric Tools on Multiple Architectures, Non-Interactively), to collect measurements of BATs (Benchmarkable Asymmetric Tools) on a large number of computers. The eBATS measurements and comparisons began at the end of 2006.

VAMPIRE subsequently initiated the eBASC and eBASH projects. eSTREAM finished in April 2008 but VAMPIRE continued to accept new stream ciphers for benchmarking as part of eBASC.

VAMPIRE developed a new unified benchmarking suite, SUPERCOP, to benchmark hash functions, secret-key stream ciphers, public-key encryption systems, public-key signature systems, and public-key secret-sharing systems. Unified measurements were collected on fifty computers in July 2008.

eBACS was extended by ECRYPT II, a Network of Excellence funded by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), contract number ICT-2007-216676, and further by grant 60NANB10D004 from the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). eBACS also incorporates data from the XBX project by Christian Wenzel-Benner and Jens Gräf.


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